Fertilizers

The actual establishment of such an important direction for domestic agriculture as fertilizer production took place during the work of the outstanding scientist E.V. Britske. Upon his initiative the research in the field of phosphate raw materials chemical processing, the production of concentrated and complex fertilizers, as well as the liquid fertilizer application was carried out.

The next significant milestone in the Institute's fertilizer technology development was marked by Academician S.I. Wolfkovich joining NIUIF. Wolfkovich developed an industrial flowsheet for obtaining potassium salts from sylvinite, actively participated in the creation of the Khibiny apatite construction and supervised all work on the study and implementation of apatite in various industries, studied boric acid production, on the basis of which a production flowsheet was subsequently developed.

The expansion of research and design work in the field of fertilizer technology and industrial salts in the post-war period is closely related to Professor V.M. Borisov. Under his direct supervision, the production of ammophos from low-grade Karatau phosphorites was implemented, fundamentally new production processes for obtaining a number of concentrated complex phosphorus fertilizers, in particular, endogenous ammophos, mono- and dicalcium phosphate, NPK and other types of fertilizers were developed. Research and experimental work on the complex fertilizer technology based on phosphoric acid as well as nitric acid decomposition of phosphates was intensified. Ammophos flowsheet by recycle mode with preliminary WPA evaporation up to 40% P2O5 and a stepwise method of obtaining chemically pure ammonium phosphate were introduced. Method of spraying phosphoric and nitric acids in an ammonia medium using reaction heat and obtaining a dry product was tested. The processes of mixing and melting of ammophos with other fertilizers and the production of ammonium phosphates based on thermal phosphoric acid have been investigated. Ammophos flowsheet with spray dryers and a flowsheet for obtaining ANP fertilizer from melts with melt granulation in oil, as well as the technology of highly concentrated non-ballistic fertilizers - potassium and ammonium metaphosphates, ammonium polyphosphates and others - have been developed. Extensive research to obtain liquid complex fertilizers in the form of solutions and suspensions and tricalcium phosphate by calcining superphosphate was carried out. A new hydrothermal method for processing natural phosphates into fertilizers and feed phosphates has been researched and introduced. After the discovery of a datolite ore deposit and adopting its processing into boric acid, intensive development of the boron industry from datolite raw materials and boric acid production waste, as well as boron-containing fertilizer technology has begun.

This exceptional creative period was marked by the uprise of a whole pleiad of eminent chemists who made a huge contribution to the domestic chemical industry, including S.K. Voskresensky, R.E. Remen, N.I. Kryuchkov, S.K. Milovanova, I.L. Gofman, A.M. Dubovitsky, A.A. Ionass, F.G. Polykovskaya, M.M. Kobrin, L.E. Berlin, B.M. Mantsev, M.V. Lykov, E.N. Ginzburg, T.F. Abashkina, Y.F. Zhdanov, F.G. Margolis, A.N. Dokholova, T.I. Zavertyaeva, B.F, Fedyushkin, P.V. Klassen, A.A. Brodsky, A.V. Kononov, V.F. Karmyshev, I.G. Grishaev, V.G. Kazak and a number of others. Their joint creative contribution is reflected in a huge number of publications, monographs and books, many of which are still relevant today.

An exceptionally large contribution to the development of the JSC NIUIF modern scientific and industrial school was made by doctors of technical sciences, professors A.V. Kononov and A.A. Brodsky. A.V. Kononov, A.A. Brodsky and their employees’ proceedings laid the foundations for mineral fertilizer and feed phosphate modern technologies.

V.G. Kazak did a lot for the development of the mineral fertilizer school. He was a polymath and an erudite, well versed in nitric and sulphuric acid fertilizer technology, complex processing of raw materials and in many other areas.

Great contribution to the heat and mass transfer process development and process equipment creation was made by Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor M.V. Lykov and Doctor of Technical Sciences I.G. Grishaev.

The Institute has always paid great attention to environmental protection, reducing the negative impact of production on the environment with particular focus on waste gas cleaning. In this regard, Professor V.M. Ramm should be mentioned, an outstanding scientist in the field of chemical processes and equipment, a prominent specialist in gas absorption, the author of the homonymous monograph, which became a classic and was translated into many foreign languages. V.M. Ranm’s numerous students and colleagues followed in his footsteps - N.I. Krainev, Z.V. Chagin, G.A. Skvortsov, M.A. Orlov, V.V. Evgrashenko and others.

JSC NIUIF becoming a part of PhosAgro has given a new burst to the development of the fertilizer and absorption technology department, focusing all its efforts on achieving those high goals that the company sets for itself. Currently, the main department activities are research in the field of complex and water-soluble fertilizers and feed phosphates, development of design projects for existing production facility revamps and development of new high unit capacity plants.

The most significant advances in the development of fertilizer and feed phosphate technologies over the past 30 years are:

  • development and commercial exploitation of granular DAP high intensity technology with a drum granulator-dryer (DGD);
  • development and commercial exploitation of granular MAP high intensity technology with a drum granulator-dryer (DGD);
  • development of technology and exploitation of a pilot commercial plant for granular PKS, NPKS-fertilizer production with a drum granulator-dryer (BGS);
  • development and commercial exploitation of NPK, NPKS-fertilizer high intensity technology with pre-neutralizer, pipe reactors, ammonizer-granulator and drying drum (PN-PR-AG-DD);
  • development and commercial exploitation of high intensity technology of feed phosphates from defluorinated phosphoric acid with a plow mixer and a drying drum;
  • development and commercial exploitation of liquid complex fertilizers (LCF) high intensity technology.